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Adobe Photoshop is a raster graphics editor developed and published by Adobe Inc. It was originally created in by Thomas and John Knoll. Since then, the software has become the industry standard not only in raster graphics editing, but in digital art as a whole. The software’s name is often colloquially used as a verb e. In addition to raster graphics, Photoshop has limited abilities to edit or render text and vector graphics especially through clipping path for the latter , as well as 3D graphics and video.
Its feature set can be expanded by plug-ins ; programs developed and distributed independently of Photoshop that run inside it and offer new or enhanced features.
Photoshop’s naming scheme was initially based on version numbers. However, in October following the introduction of Creative Suite branding , each new version of Photoshop was designated with ” CS ” plus a number; e. With the introduction of the Creative Cloud branding in June and in turn, the change of the ” CS ” suffix to ” CC ” , Photoshop’s licensing scheme was changed to that of software as a service subscription model.
As of November , Adobe has also released a full version of Photoshop for the iPad , and while initially limited, Adobe plans to bring more features to Photoshop for iPad. Photoshop was developed in by two brothers Thomas and John Knoll , who sold the distribution license to Adobe Systems Incorporated in Thomas Knoll, a Ph. Thomas took a six-month break from his studies in to collaborate with his brother on the program.
Thomas renamed the program ImagePro, but the name was already taken. During this time, John traveled to Silicon Valley and gave a demonstration of the program to engineers at Apple and Russell Brown, art director at Adobe. Both showings were successful, and Adobe decided to purchase the license to distribute in September Photoshop 1. The handling of color slowly improved with each release from Adobe and Photoshop quickly became the industry standard in digital color editing. At the time Photoshop 1.
The list price of Photoshop 1. Photoshop was initially only available on Macintosh. The Windows port led to Photoshop reaching a wider mass market audience as Microsoft ‘s global reach expanded within the next few years. Photoshop files have default file extension as. PSD , which stands for ” P hoto s hop D ocument”.
This is in contrast to many other file formats e. JPG or. GIF that restrict content to provide streamlined, predictable functionality. A PSD file has a maximum height and width of 30, pixels, and a length limit of two gigabytes. These formats are required to use the file in publications or on the web. Photoshop can also create and use files with the extension. PSB, which stands for “Photoshop Big” also known as “large document format”. The dimension limit was apparently chosen arbitrarily by Adobe, not based on computer arithmetic constraints it is not close to a power of two, as is 30, but for ease of software testing.
Photoshop functionality can be extended by add-on programs called Photoshop plugins or plug-ins. Adobe creates some plugins, such as Adobe Camera Raw, but third-party companies develop most plugins, according to Adobe’s specifications.
Some are free and some are commercial software. Most plugins work with only Photoshop or Photoshop-compatible hosts, but a few can also be run as standalone applications. There are various types of plugins, such as filter, export, import, selection, color correction, and automation. The most popular plugins are the filter plugins also known as a 8bf plugins , available under the Filter menu in Photoshop. Filter plugins can either modify the current image or create content.
Below are some popular types of plugins, and some well-known companies associated with them:. Adobe Camera Raw also known as ACR and Camera Raw is a special plugin, supplied free by Adobe, used primarily to read and process raw image files so that the resulting images can be processed by Photoshop. Upon loading Photoshop, a sidebar with a variety of tools with multiple image-editing functions appears to the left of the screen. These tools typically fall under the categories of drawing ; painting ; measuring and navigation ; selection ; typing ; and retouching.
These can be expanded to reveal similar tools. In some newer versions hovering along the tools gives a small Video glimpse of the tool. Photoshop includes a few versions of the pen tool.
The pen tool creates precise paths that can be manipulated using anchor points. The free form pen tool allows the user to draw paths freehand, and with the magnetic pen tool, the drawn path attaches closely to outlines of objects in an image, which is useful for isolating them from a background. The Clone Stamp tool duplicates one part of an image to another part of the same image by way of a brush.
The duplication is either in full or in part depending on the mode. The user can also clone part of one layer to another layer. The Clone Stamp tool is useful for duplicating objects or removing a defect in an image. Photoshop provides an array of shape tools including rectangles, rounded rectangles, ellipses, polygons and lines.
These shapes can be manipulated by the pen tool, direct selection tool etc. In addition, Photoshop provides its own shapes like animals, signs and plants. The eyedropper tool selects a color from an area of the image that is clicked, and samples it for future use. Selection tools are used to select all or any part of a picture to perform cut, copy, edit, or retouching operations. The crop tool can be used to select a particular area of an image and discard the portions outside the chosen section.
This tool assists in creating a focus point on an image and unnecessary or excess space. The crop tool is in the tools palette, which is located on the right side of the document. By placing the cursor over the image, the user can drag the cursor to the desired area. Once the Enter key is pressed, the area outside the rectangle will be cropped.
The area outside the rectangle is the discarded data, which allows for the file size to be decreased. The slice and slice select tools, like the crop tool, are used in isolating parts of images.
The slice tool can be used to divide an image into different sections, and these separate parts can be used as pieces of a web page design once HTML and CSS are applied.
The move tool can be used to drag the entirety of a single layer or more if they are selected. Alternatively, once an area of an image is highlighted, the move tool can be used to manually relocate the selected piece to anywhere on the canvas. The marquee is a tool that can make selections that are a single row, single column, rectangular and elliptical. This tool can also crop an image; it allows for better control.
In contrast to the crop tool, the marquee tool allows for more adjustments to the selected area before cropping. The only marquee tool that does not allow cropping is the elliptical. Although the single row and column marquee tools allow for cropping, they are not ideal, because they only crop a line. The rectangular marquee tool is the preferred option.
Once the tool has been selected, dragging the tool across the desired area will select it. The selected area will be outlined by dotted lines, referred to as “marching ants”. To set a specific size or ratio, the tool options bar provides these settings. Before selecting an area, the desired size or ratio must be set by adjusting the width and height. Any changes such as color, filters, location, etc. To crop the selection, the user must go to the image tab and select crop.
The lasso tool is similar to the marquee tool, however, the user can make a custom selection by drawing it freehand. The regular lasso tool allows the user to have drawing capabilities. Photoshop will complete the selection once the mouse button is released. The user may also complete the selection by connecting the end point to the starting point. The “marching ants” will indicate if a selection has been made. The polygonal lasso tool will draw only straight lines, which makes it an ideal choice for images with many straight lines.
Unlike the regular lasso tool, the user must continually click around the image to outline the shape. To complete the selection, the user must connect the end point to the starting point just like the regular lasso tool. Magnetic lasso tool are considered the smart tool. It can do the same as the other two, but it can also detect the edges of an image once the user selects a starting point. It detects by examining the color pixels as the cursor moves over the desired area.
Closing the selection is the same as the other two, which should also should display the “marching ants” once the selection has been closed. The quick selection tool selects areas based on edges, similarly to the magnetic lasso tool. The difference between this tool and the lasso tool is that there is no starting and ending point. For this reason, the selected area can be added onto as much as possible without starting over.
By dragging the cursor over the desired area, the quick selection tool detects the edges of the image. The “marching ants” allow the user to know what is currently being selected. Once the user is done, the selected area can be edited without affecting the rest of the image. One of the features that makes this tool especially user friendly is that the SHIFT key is not needed to add more to the selection; by default, extra mouse clicks will be added to the selection rather than creating a new selection.
The magic wand tool selects areas based on pixels of similar values. One click will select all neighboring pixels of similar value within a tolerance level set by the user. If the eyedropper tool is selected in the options bar, then the magic wand can determine the value needed to evaluate the pixels; this is based on the sample size setting in the eyedropper tool.
This tool is inferior to the quick selection tool which works much the same but with much better results and more intuitive controls. The user must decide what settings to use or if the image is right for this tool. The Eraser tool erases content based on the active layer. If the user is on the text layer, then any text across which the tool is dragged will be erased. The eraser will convert the pixels to transparent, unless the background layer is selected.
The size and style of the eraser can be selected in the options bar. This tool is unique in that it can take the form of the paintbrush and pencil tools. In addition to the straight eraser tool, there are two more available options — background eraser and magic eraser. The background eraser deletes any part of the image that is on the edge of an object. This tool is often used to extract objects from the background. The magic eraser tool deletes based on similar colored pixels.
It is very similar to the magic wand tool. This tool is ideal for deleting areas with the same color or tone that contrasts with the rest of the image. Using simple combinations of keys video layers can easily be modified, with other features such as adding text and creating animations using single images. With the Extended version of Photoshop CS5, 2D elements of an artwork can easily become three-dimensional with the click of a button. Extrusions of texts, an available library of materials for three-dimensional, and even wrapping two-dimensional images around 3D geometry.
Third-party plugins have also been added to the most recent version of Photoshop where technologies such as the iPad have integrated the software with different types of applications. Applications like the Adobe Eazel painting app allows the user to easily create paintings with their fingertips and use an array of different paint from dry to wet in order to create rich color blending.
The program will feature cloud syncing with other devices and a simpler interface than the desktop version. The plug-in allows users to remove noise without the side-effect of over-sharpening, add grain, and even perform post-crop vignetting. The traditional and most common way is using CFML. For example, the file IMAP. ColdFusion can also be deployed to servlet containers such as Apache Tomcat and Mortbay Jetty , but because these platforms do not officially support ColdFusion, they leave many of its features inaccessible.
Prior to ColdFusion 7. NET by declaring them as web services. However, beginning in ColdFusion MX 7. Recently, there has been much interest in Java development using alternate languages such as Jython , Groovy and JRuby. ColdFusion was one of the first scripting platforms to allow this style of Java development.
ColdFusion 8 natively supports. ColdFusion developers can simply call any. NET assembly without needing to recompile or alter the assemblies in any way. Data types are automatically translated between ColdFusion and.
NET example:. NET Assemblies remotely through proxy without the use of. NET Remoting. This allows ColdFusion users to leverage. NET without having to be installed on a Windows operating system.
When ColdFusion templates are saved to disk, they are traditionally given the extension. ColdFusion originated as proprietary technology based on Web technology industry standards. However, it is becoming a less closed technology through the availability of competing products.
Such alternative products include :. NET, simply because ColdFusion will run on top of a. NET application server. In March , a known issue affecting ColdFusion 8, 9 and 10 left the National Vulnerability Database open to attack. In April , a ColdFusion vulnerability was blamed by Linode for an intrusion into the Linode Manager control panel website. In May , Adobe identified another critical vulnerability, reportedly already being exploited in the wild, which targets all recent versions of ColdFusion on any servers where the web-based administrator and API have not been locked down.
The vulnerability allows unauthorized users to upload malicious scripts and potentially gain full control over the server. In April , Adobe fixed a cross-site scripting XSS vulnerability  in Adobe ColdFusion 10 before Update 16, and in ColdFusion 11 before Update 5, that allowed remote attackers to inject arbitrary web script or HTML;  however, it’s exploitable only by users who have authenticated through the administration panel.
In September , Adobe fixed two command injection vulnerabilities CVE that enabled arbitrary code and an alleyway traversal CVE From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Rapid Web app development platform. This article is about the Adobe server platform.
For the programming language, see CFML. For other uses, see Cold Fusion disambiguation. Retrieved January 1, Adobe ColdFusion Updates. Boston Herald.
Archived from the original on November 2, Retrieved Metz, Cade October 9, PC Mag. Auerbach, Jon; Kerber, Ross January 30, Wall Street Journal. It is a simplified version of the paid video editor DaVinci Resolve. The app is focused on the professional color correction of video clips, but you can edit any type of video with its help.
This is the professional editor and you will immediately notice this both in the quality of the interface and in its functionality. DaVinci Resolve Lite does not include many video filters, as it is primarily a color corrector, but OpenFX support solves this problem. You can download and install additional video filters. As a result, you will be able to expand the functionality according to your requirements.
If you are wondering how to get Adobe Premiere Pro for free, I advise you to consider using this free alternative. The software can be used for personal and educational purposes for free. The program interface does not look like ordinary video editors. Videos are located not on the timeline, but on the graph here. The vertices of the graph are connected, thereby creating the final movie.
It is worth noting that the program requires a powerful computer. Nuke includes a large number of filters for post-processing, transition, 3D and transformation effects. Each of the effect parameters can be added to several keyframes. Nuke is a powerful video editor, which may seem too complicated for novice users, but it is definitely suitable for experienced video editors.
Shotcut is an open source free video editor. It will help create a film using many recorded videos. In addition, the application supports a large number of video and audio filters.
For example, you can correct white balance, make color correction, or overlay text defined by HTML markup. Shotcut supports many formats thanks to the use of FFMpeg. This is a pretty good free video editor with fairly diverse functionality. You may create a small film with its help. Another advantage is that developers are constantly improving the program and correcting flaws.
OpenShot is another open source free video editor. The video editor has a simple interface, including a preview window, a timeline and a list of imported files.
There is more control over print options and better management with Adobe Bridge. The Clone Source palette is introduced, adding more options to the clone stamp tool. Other features include the nondestructive Smart Filters, optimizing graphics for mobile devices,  Fill Light and Dust Busting tools.
CS3 Extended includes everything in CS3 and additional features. There are tools for 3D graphic file formats, video enhancement and animation, and comprehensive image measurement and analysis tools with DICOM file support.
As for video editing, CS3 supports layers and video formatting so users can edit video files per frame. They were also made available through Adobe’s online store and Adobe Authorized Resellers. CS4 features smoother panning and zooming, allowing faster image editing at a high magnification. The interface is more simplified with its tab-based interface  making it cleaner to work with.
Photoshop CS4 features a new 3D engine allowing the conversion of gradient maps to 3D objects, adding depth to layers and text, and getting print-quality output with the new ray-tracing rendering engine. It supports common 3D formats; the new Adjustment and Mask panels; content-aware scaling seam carving ;  fluid canvas rotation and File display options. Adobe released Photoshop CS4 Extended, which has the features of Adobe Photoshop CS4, plus capabilities for scientific imaging, 3D, motion graphics, accurate image analysis and high-end film and video users.
The faster 3D engine allows users to paint directly on 3D models, wrap 2D images around 3D shapes and animate 3D objects. Photoshop CS5 was launched on April 12, In May , Adobe Creative Suite 5. Its version of Photoshop, The community also had a hand in the additions made to CS5 as 30 new features and improvements were included by request.
These include automatic image straightening, the Rule-of-Thirds cropping tool, color pickup, and saving a bit image as a JPEG. Another feature includes the Adobe Mini Bridge, which allows for efficient file browsing and management. A new materials library was added, providing more options such as Chrome, Glass, and Cork. The new Shadow Catcher tool can be used to further enhance 3D objects.
For motion graphics, the tools can be applied to over more than one frame in a video sequence. Photoshop CS6, released in May , added new creative design tools and provided a redesigned interface  with a focus on enhanced performance. Adobe Photoshop CS6 brought a suite of tools for video editing.
Color and exposure adjustments, as well as layers, are among a few things that are featured in this new editor. Upon completion of editing, the user is presented with a handful of options of exporting into a few popular formats.
CS6 brings the “straighten” tool to Photoshop, where a user simply draws a line anywhere on an image, and the canvas will reorient itself so that the line drawn becomes horizontal, and adjusts the media accordingly. This was created with the intention that users will draw a line parallel to a plane in the image, and reorient the image to that plane to more easily achieve certain perspectives. CS6 allows background saving, which means that while another document is compiling and archiving itself, it is possible to simultaneously edit an image.
CS6 also features a customizable auto-save feature, preventing any work from being lost. With version Adobe also announced that CS6 will be the last suite sold with perpetual licenses in favor of the new Creative Cloud subscriptions, though they will continue to provide OS compatibility support as well as bug fixes and security updates as necessary.
Starting January 9, , CS6 is no longer available for purchase, making a Creative Cloud license the only purchase option going forward. Photoshop CC As the next major version after CS6, it is only available as part of a Creative Cloud subscription. Major features in this version include new Smart Sharpen, Intelligent Upsampling, and Camera Shake Reduction for reducing blur caused by camera shake. Since the initial launch, Adobe has released two additional feature-bearing updates.
The first, version The major features in this version were Adobe Generator, a Node. Photoshop Version CC features improvements to content-aware tools, two new blur tools spin blur and path blur and a new focus mask feature that enables the user to select parts of an image based on whether they are in focus or not.
Other minor improvements have been made, including speed increases for certain tasks. Photoshop CC was released on June 15, Adobe added various creative features including Adobe Stock, which is a library of custom stock images.
It also includes and have the ability to have more than one layer style. The updated UI as of November 30, , delivers a cleaner and more consistent look throughout Photoshop, and the user can quickly perform common tasks using a new set of gestures on touch-enabled devices like Microsoft Surface Pro.
Photoshop CC was released on November 2, It introduced a new template selector when creating new documents, the ability to search for tools, panels and help articles for Photoshop, support for SVG OpenType fonts and other small improvements.
Photoshop CC version 19 was released on October 18, It featured an overhaul to the brush organization system, allowing for more properties such as color and opacity to be saved per-brush and for brushes to be categorized in folders and sub-folders. It also added brush stroke smoothing, and over brushes created by Kyle T. Webster following Adobe’s acquisition of his website, KyleBrush.
Other additions were Lightroom Photo access, Variable font support, select subject, copy-paste layers, enhanced tooltips, panorama and HEIF support, PNG compression, increased maximum zoom level, symmetry mode, algorithm improvements to Face-aware and selection tools, color and luminance range masking, improved image resizing, and performance improvements to file opening, filters, and brush strokes. Photoshop CC was released on October 15, Beginning with Photoshop CC version This version Introduced a new tool called Frame Tool to create placeholder frames for images.
It also added multiple undo mode, auto-commitment, and prevented accidental panel moves with lock work-space. Live blend mode previews are added, allowing for faster scrolling over different blend mode options in the layers panel. Other additions were Color Wheel, Transform proportionally without Shift key, Distribute spacing like in Illustrator, ability to see longer layer names, match font with Japanese fonts, flip document view, scale UI to font, reference point hidden by default, new compositing engine, which provides a more modern compositing architecture is added which is easier to optimize on all platforms.
Photoshop was released on November 4, It added several improvements to the new content-aware fill and to the new document tab. Also added were animated GIF support, improved lens blur performance and one-click zoom to a layer’s contents.
It introduced new swatches, gradients, patterns, shapes and stylistic sets for OpenType fonts. Presets are now more intuitive to use and easier to organize. With the February update version This version improved GPU based lens blur quality and provided performance improvements, such as accelerating workflows with smoother panning, zooming and navigation of documents.
Version 21 was the first version where the iPad version was released. It introduced faster portrait selection, Adobe Camera Raw improvements, auto-activated Adobe Fonts, rotatable patterns, and improved Match Font. This is the first macOS release to run natively on Apple silicon. Content Credentials Beta was introduced. When enabled, the editing information is captured in a tamper-evident form and resides with the file through successive copy generations. It aligns with the C2PA standard on digital provenance across the internet.
The Adobe Photoshop family is a group of applications and services made by Adobe Inc. Several features of the Adobe Photoshop family are pixel manipulating, image organizing, photo retouching, and more. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Raster graphics editing software.
For the colloquial verb meaning photograph manipulation, see Photoshop verb. For other uses, see Photoshop disambiguation. For the vector graphics language, see PostScript.
Adobe Photoshop Thomas Knoll John Knoll. List of languages. Main article: Photoshop plugin. This section may need to be rewritten to comply with Wikipedia’s quality standards.
You can help. The talk page may contain suggestions. July You can help by adding to it. September Retrieved July 20, Adobe Inc. Retrieved November 13, Retrieved January 31, Retrieved February 29, The Verge. Retrieved March 1, Retrieved November 7, Archived from the original on June 26, Retrieved June 15, Story Photography. May 23, Retrieved May 23, February 28, Archived from the original on July 1, Retrieved October 15, Graphics Software. Retrieved August 13, Mac Publishing. Dennis Publishing Ltd.
Raja January 13, The Hindu. Retrieved August 10, Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved January 23, Securities and Exchange Commission. February 22, Archived from the original on February 24, What Opens a PSD? File Format List from WhatIs. Retrieved May 12, Each of the effect parameters can be added to several keyframes. Nuke is a powerful video editor, which may seem too complicated for novice users, but it is definitely suitable for experienced video editors. Shotcut is an open source free video editor.
It will help create a film using many recorded videos. In addition, the application supports a large number of video and audio filters. For example, you can correct white balance, make color correction, or overlay text defined by HTML markup. Shotcut supports many formats thanks to the use of FFMpeg. This is a pretty good free video editor with fairly diverse functionality. You may create a small film with its help. Another advantage is that developers are constantly improving the program and correcting flaws.
OpenShot is another open source free video editor. The video editor has a simple interface, including a preview window, a timeline and a list of imported files. OpenShot supports a large number of video formats it uses FFmpeg. In addition, the video editor includes effects and transients, as well as utilities for creating 3D text and animation.
Splice is a good free video editor for iOS. It allows you to create a movie using files from your gallery very quickly. The app has a good collection of musical files that can be used in your video. It is also possible to download music from iTunes. Splice supports such functions as video cropping, video filters, scene transitions, adding captions and recording audio comments. Splice has a pretty simple interface. Moreover, you can share the final video on social networks or save it to the gallery.
Download the following packs of LUTs LUTs for creating and saving color grades, which can be used or applied to your projects. Check your email to download freebies. They’re warm, pastel, matte, colorful and contrasty. Start editing your wedding videos with these beautiful LUTs for free.
Lightroom 5. Adobe Photoshop Lightroom Classic Lightroom Classic Retrieved The Lightroom Queen. Photoshop meets iTunes”. Archived from the original on Lightroom Classic Adobe”. Peachpit Press.
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