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Our schooling teaches in discrete sections or blocks, based on Age, School, and Level. One of the really wonderful things about this blog are the interactions. Sure there are loads of unknowns and lots of Idunnos but the connections are there if you can find a thread to follow. It was a wonderful trip around history and technology following the loop of time and historical circumstance. Burke contends that one cannot consider the development of any particular piece of the modern world in isolation.

Rather, the entire gestalt of the modern world is the result of a web of interconnected events, each one consisting of a person or group acting for reasons of their own motivations e. The interplay of the results of these isolated events is what drives history and innovation, and is also the main focus of the series and its sequels. Research in showed that the leaves even in the first year contain a range of phototoxic poisons in the furocoumarins family[1], which is much higher in the second year.

The furocoumarins cause what look like third degree burns, even years after touching Hogweed, by the way they interact with the dermal DNA. Oh, it might appear I know a lot about such plants, whilst I do no more than many, trust me ehen I say,. It would take effort to detect and prove, but clearly it has happened. Easier when the prosecution tips their hand and a good lawyer recalls that the information that the prosdcutor mentioned would have only been known thru a Securus wire tap.

Something they do actually ask you to learn how to do in the medical profession, to detect how filled up yoir lungs may be with crud of various forms. I was surprised by this when told by a nurse who had spent time in Africa where sometimes all that they have is a rolled up piece of cardboard to make what looks like an old fashioned ear trumpet…. Keep in mind that the images from Webb Telescope are false-color. The media repeatedly fails to mention this. The frequencies Observed by the telescope hardware and the data collected are then mapped into human visible to create the images.

Of course, you would probably not exist anyway, as it would require too much energy expense to process the input. Remember to get good sleep, so your eyeball-brain system has the energy to function the next day. It helps to become a Webb Telescope at an early age, so you can look back in time and start connecting the Galaxy dots while you can make a difference for society and security. The longer you have been around, and the further back in time you can Observe the Galaxy dots, the more information you will glean.

Russian intelligence often take advantage of corrupt police, and those jokers are not often smart enough to ask who is paying. Retbleed CVE and CVE is the new addition to the family of speculative execution attacks that exploit branch target injection to leak information, which we call Spectre-BTI.

Unlike its siblings, who trigger harmful branch target speculation by exploiting indirect jumps or calls, Retbleed exploits return instructions. The rowdiness took place around 10 pm in the Mission District after the Dolores Hill Bomb, an annual event where hundreds of skateboarders gather and go down a steep hill.

Do not be entirely to sure on that I suspect there will be a new Go Faster Stripe in a very short while that will make them and more importantly their users wince.

Consumer advocacy group Choice says the technology is unethical, invasive and being used without proper consent or reasoning. The Australian Human Rights Commission has called for a ban on the technology until Australia has specific laws to regulate its use.

It followed police in Western Australia using it for Covid isolation checks. Biometric data includes faces, fingerprints, voices, DNA profiles, and other measurements related to the body. Biometric technologies, it noted, previously used almost exclusively in policing, are now used by a growing number of private and public organizations, including employers, schools and shops. More novel tools such as gait analysis, which looks at distinctive features of how people walk, or key-stroke analysis, based on how people type, are also being deployed.

Bunnings have only mechanised the screenshot and caption. The real advance is the accuracy of timestamps synchronised to the cash register enables them to put a card nr to a face, and not have to seek public help in identifying perpetrators.

Human-like robots may be perceived as having mental states Some people perceive robots that display emotions as intentional agents, study finds. This shows that mere exposure to a human-like robot is not enough to make people believe it is capable of thoughts and emotions. It is human-like behavior that might be crucial for being perceived as an intentional agent. According to Wykowska, these findings show that people might be more likely to believe artificial intelligence is capable of independent thought when it creates the impression that it can behave just like humans.

This could inform the design of social robots of the future, she said. He feels it is important to understand how different people think about risk in order, for example, to gauge attitudes to new technologies or societal challenges. An algorithm was used to generate a semantic network of risk from the 36, associations. It identified the following components: threat, fortune, investment, activity and analysis.

The red-colored objects in the photo are the large redshift cosmological objects — which are now in the infrared. Infrared objects within the galaxy [i. A quick search earlier today shows that the telescope is in fact expected to search for brown dwarfs. And it is because in the last analysis we ourselves are part of the mystery we are trying to solve.

CAD is a common heart condition where the major blood vessels that supply the heart struggle to send enough blood and oxygen, often due to a narrowing or blockage of the coronary arteries caused by fatty material build-up plaque.

It is the leading cause of death in the United States and can be caused by high cholesterol, diabetes, a sedentary lifestyle, smoking, and high blood pressure.

Cardiovascular diseases kill about 18 million people, annually, according to the World Health Organization. FFR, or fractional flow reserve, is a diagnostic technique that measures how well blood can flow to the heart through the coronary arteries. It is an important tool used by physicians to monitor patients but involves an invasive procedure where a catheter must be inserted during an angiogram an X-ray of the blood vessels and organs.

The procedure is called a cardiac catheterization. I really did like malapropism emptywheel did. See top comments on her article. Content and Packet Delivery are different things. Some do not understand this. Or they want to pretend that they do not understand the difference. Some ISPs love to oversell, and then when their bandwidth costs go up, they lose profit, so they want to blame the content providers. I am not saying the content providers are totally innocent, they could do better, but the ISPs should not oversell in the first place.

Schulte to know how to do from memory if he is capable of doing the other things the US government prosecution claim. So why they should not know, makes me wonder what game they were actually playing. I care very little about who has the truth. I focus on finding out what is truth.

I may be completely wrong, and even though the contradictory evidence would indicate so, I am not convinced. There is a lot of magic stuff that happens at the Quantum level yet to be discovered. Especially at Planck scale. Which, probably is not even discoverable.

I suspect some things can only be inferred thru math, and can never be experimentally proven or disproven either way because it is physically impossible to build any experimental apparatus that can test the theory in question. I am of the belief that it is perfectly fine to be wrong. As long as we learn something from a disproven hypothesis, we still learned something.

In such cases, I am primarily interested in knowing why someone wants to believe that the evidence and the science are wrong? In this case, Tired Light is not less bizarre than the expansion of the universe. Also, any new discoveries in, e. Also, Tired Light is just one of thousands of wild ideas floating around.

Why do people think that new discoveries will suddenly start supporting this idea, and not others? There is absolutely nothing in physics that suggests that light could lose energy without changing momentum. Still people want to believe it. One of the greatest sins of science is the cult of unified. Around a century and a half ago mathmeticians were going mad over infinity. These days we mainly take it as accepted a curiosity, with oddities we can not explain, but we nolonger believe we can find a deities in there or some deeper meaning to life as most of us perceive it.

Now we play at the edges of where did our universe come from, what caused it. The underpining of which is the,. Some but not many look for some significant meaning in these and try to find answers with the tools we have made.

One is mathmatics, but we already know from work of just about a century ago it is at best imperfect. Yet we expect to be able to find ultimate truth answers with it…. Does that appear to be reasonable behaviour, or just more omphaloskepsis navel gazing for hidden truth? Just remember there are infinities of difference between massless and having to little mass to measure. Whilst the difference may be infinitesimaly small, at a cusp it makes a difference, where things expressed in natural numbers are non-differentiable.

It may, it may not. Because there is still much to be learned. If a photon slowly loses energy over time long distance , it would have to become red-shifted because the frequency is proportional to the energy via Planck.

Big picture question: Where does the energy come from that is available to create the photon in the first place? What if, as part of space-time and the quantum foam, the photon must pay back to space-time the energy that was originally borrowed from somewhere? When you look up a definition for these you find they are given as circular objects in three dimensions with a center and radius that is invariant. Saturn is the most oblate planet in the Solar System, with a flattening of 0.

See planetary flattening and equatorial bulge for details. In essence it means something that appears to be, whilst actually is not, canonicaly part of an order or set. Back in time when advanced education and knowledge were kept firmly under the church thumb.

Oblates were seen to be on the periphery or spinning around the core, not destined for high office. The evidence. What more do you want? All we have is observations. However, all reality does to us, is observable. Therefore, the non-observable aspects of reality are also inconsequential. No, that is a geometrical sphere. A globe is something round like a ball. Unlike Plato, modern humans do not require things to have perfect geometric forms. Eventually, after falling down enough times, they start to learn what mass and gravity are all about.

More seriously, thanks for the link to an interesting article, which stimulated me to read further. Under the assumption that the physics of type Ia supernovae are universal, analysis of observations of of them has shown that the gravitational constant has varied by less than one part in ten billion per year over the last nine billion years. PS Wikipedia also says that Newton guessed the mean specific gravity of Earth at 5. One of the first things a physics student is told is that physics is not about what things are , but only about calculating how they behave.

Physics has three parts,. Expect beards and wooly jumpers on the more senior of this group. Then there is the third group that contain those who cogitate of Swiss Cheese and bubbles within bubbles and other minor anoying things such as an infinity of infinities happening every fractional infinity of a second. Physicists are weird people who think out even weirder theories about stretching and shrinking of space and time and about things that are both waves and particles and can be at two places at the same time.

On top of these silly theories, they make transistors and GPS satellites. And now you can held a computer in your hand to find your way in any city or landscape. Meanwhile, all the people who laughed at their silly theories about space-time and wave-particle duality, have been left behind in the dust.

But do not despair, new people will stand up to make fun of new silly theories of these weird physicists. Full disclosure: in a certain sense, for a short time, I have been a kind of physicist, at least partly. That various physics equations require Magic Constants that are not constant, tells me that we really do not understand the reality of physics, and that everything we supposedly know, is really just an approximation based upon Observation.

Which has concequences, if you are not moving on a straight line path towards or away from an event. You can simply draw it out on graphpaper. However even on a straight line path , when the path is not directly to or from a source it becomes harder. Worse as anyone who has written satellite tracking software knows, when paths are not just eliptical orbits , but also when both the source and observer move on their own paths things can get hellish.

Then the third to calculate from the two instantanious positions, and directions, with appropriate correctction for change and propagation. No disrespect to all of the great Physicists, but what I am saying is there is more to Space than meets the eye. Note that even Einstein, as brilliant as he was, changed his theory. Well, his equations anyway. He later removed it.

Einstein originally introduced the constant in to counterbalance the effect of gravity and achieve a static universe, a notion which was the accepted view at the time. One of the more interesting findings is that a two-dimensional time would remove the need for the cosmological constant altogether.

The overall scenario is thus that the second time dimension expands the Universe on a very small length scale becoming manifest as the Planck length. Can someone give me the vector from Earth that points to the center of the Universe where the alleged Big Bang happened?

It has a cat gun. It already believes that the same photon might be seen by observers in different directions. I see the misunderstanding with thanks to Fred Hoyle. That misunderstanding can be easily corrected. In fact, the Big Bang happened everywhere in the Universe. It brings to mind explosions, detonations, balloons being popped, and everything being blown out to chickenbasket hades. Another misunderstanding.

As far as the atom knows, it is in perfect rest. The rest of the universe is moving. It is the movements of the observer compared to the atom that causes the effects. That does not solve all the puzzles. The other ingredient is that both the observed space and time change together due to the relative movement. Note the word observed. So he went out ghost busting the Quantum Ghost for most of his life, in vain. He could not get his equations to predict what quantum mechanics can predict to every last decimal.

You also have the erroneous believe that physics should explain the foundations of the world. That is for Philosophy or Religion. Physics only predicts. But on the other hand, neither philosophy nor religion are able to predict anything at all. Now, if you can predict the outcome of an observation, experiment, or artifact to 1 part in trillions, every time, then your theory is rather precise. You can complain all you want about the silliness of the theory, it does match the reality of the universe.

As a physicist, you do know that for the next decimal in precision, you might need a new theory altogether. And if necessary, you will write it yourself, if you can.

That brings you far, e. At some point you have to look at how gravity, space, time, and point like objects interact. Which shows you space is not flat, time is not universal, and point like objects do not behave like billiard balls. These old theories were not wrong, but their basic assumptions were too coarse. The old assumptions have been replaced by new assumptions.

You might not like these new assumptions and hope they will be replaced in time. We all know they will be replaced. We are already seeing the contours of these new assumptions. And they are even weirder than quantum mechanics and general relativity. So, do not hold your breath for easy to grasp ideas. The Universe has no reason to cater to our needs for simplicity and sound bites. You might not like it, but in the end the theory that can best predict what will happen and how, will win.

We did not find a better criterium yet. Is a statment based on observation, and has an implicit assumption that an object is either moving up or moving down. However we also claim an object can not change instantly from one to the other, due to the limitations of the speed of light. So what is the in between state between up and down? There is no up or down just an unchanging direction unless something external to the object impinges on it.

The usual visualization is the surface of a balloon. That the emitting atom only decided the frequency to emit the photon at a specific wavelength has nothing to do with the motion of the atom. Once emitted, the photon is free, and the atom has no more say in the matter. And then one day, I happen to Observe this photon, me being billions of light years away, when I just happened to look.

And somehow, magically, a Rhodopsin molecule in my retina magically decides that the Blue photon is now a Red photon because I am the one that has moved further away from the emitting atom? If the photon was Blue when it left the emitting atom, but is now Red upon Observation, then something happened.

There was a middleman involved. The name of the middleman is Space. Whether Big Bang expansion of Space, or Tired Light, whichever model that caused the frequency degradation, where did the lost energy go to? Your account is correct. That is the short and long of it. And this has been tested to every precision possible, and it works as advertised. It works at short distances, on earth, in the solar system, and it works at large distances, between galaxies.

The crucial aspect you did not include was space and time dilation. At high relative speeds, space and time change. That translates to different observers seeing different frequencies and wavelengths. Nothing about this is related to the expansion of the universe. That is something independent of the Doppler effect. There is a data collection study proposed for JWST specifically to research this further.

I suspect it will raise more questions than answers. She has been researching this problem longer than anyone. She really is the expert on this problem. There is an interesting graph in the second link. Why should it be a constant? Nothing in astronomy or physics does require the Hubble constant to be constant. A small contribution to the Heat Death of the Universe. Energy conservation holds when time is invariant time symmetry.

And inflating universe is not time invariant it inflates , therefore, energy is not necessarily conserved, and it is not. Or, maybe, it goes into the inflation, or decelerating the inflation? They are numbers that we plug in, to make a formula work but they really do not represent anything directly related to the formula.

Or as they used to say work good enough…. Modern calculators will return the values of 3, 5, 7. Doing this stuff is hard work. To my understanding i. As already noted, photons from distant galaxies have traveled a long time through space which was incessantly expanding. In that circumstance, general relativity not only allows for loss of photon energy … it requires it by a specified amount. The engineering is truly a great achievement of mankind.

Yes, crunching the numbers on old data, takes time and effort. But, if no one makes the effort to look, then that can result in knowledge never gained. However another argument that comes forward is the limitation of measurment thus knowledge…. By showing in fact such attempts could not ever achieve the desired objective. Or a little more formally that, for any set of axioms and inference rules proposed to encapsulate a system mathematics.

That is there will always be things for which we can not find explanations. But since Emmy Noether [1] we know that every symmetry in nature leads to a conservation law. They turn up in your experiments however you like to set up your theory. Other constants, like the charge of an electron and proton are simply facts of life. Every free charge is an integer multiple of these charges for no apparent reason. The idea that physics just invents laws and constants for the fun of it is ridiculous.

On the contrary, whenever they can scrap a law or constant, there is a celebration and sometimes a Novel price. The physicists are working from their home universities. For most users of CERN, it would be detrimental to be on site. There simply is not enough room there. Just because they consistently show up in experiments does tell not tell you what is really happening.

Btw, if you have any information about c , h , or g not being constant, I would really like to hear it. At the time Einstein derived his law, he was as far as I know not aware of any anomaly in gravitation, even though at least one might be discerned from observations.

The basis of General Relativity was purely philosophical : his expectation that it should be possible to formulate laws of physics independent of observer perspective. It still seems miraculous to me that GR has been confirmed so well by generations of observation and experiment.

G is the supposedly universal constant of gravitation, which is far as physics has discovered applies to every part of the universe, and every moment since the first picosecond after the Big Bang. Generations of physicists have marveled about the fact that Einstein constructed a theory without free parameters and experimental evidence that was both the simplest such theory and had a perfect fit. The basis were the two assumptions that special relativity is valid locally and the force of gravity cannot be distinguished from acceleration locally.

Trying to use the firld equations gets you into all sorts of troubles as a predictive tool. They do however work reasonably well as a tool to analyze known events to confirm observations. But General Relativity is not the only theory of gravitation. He was trying to find a unified theory of both gravity and electromagnetism based on the mathematical structure of distant parallelism.

Whilst Einstein in effect ran out of time orhers are still pursuing it as it has certain advantages over General Relativity. However, whilst current on teleparallelism is towards gravity only in that electromagnetism has for now been dropped, it does have an advantage over General Relativity in that it also works in quantum field theory.

Because it came about through the use of Riemannian geometry. It was thinking along these lines in that led Einstein to the thinking on the entirely different theory of teleparallelism. GR works like a charm in neutron stars and gravitational waves. That GR is a set of 64 non-linear differential tensor equations is unfortunate, but Nature has no reason to be ruled by easy linear equations. In quantum field theory, the single body problem has no general solution as I understand.

So, I would not work about GR. I have yet to see any replacement of GR that gets the same precision in observation, and works with gravitational waves. Interesting results were found by Erik Verlinde. His theory does not replace GR, but extends it to scales where dark matter and dark energy rule. I do not believe there are any mathematical formulas to derive c, h, or G from scratch, from pure math.

They may very well exist, yet to be discovered. Which is how nature works. That does not make these constants less constant. If you can derive a constant of nature from something else, it is not a fundamental constant of nature anymore.

If your problem is that physics is empirical, then there is nothing to help you. We do not know a useful form of physics that is not empirical. And it not just because it works well, but also because his underlying model matches some of my thoughts as to what may be happening at the quantum level.

But the stars and galaxies still behave like there is invisible dark mass hidden among the stars. Originally, he is a string theorists. From your writings, I think you would like that branch of theoretical physics. His viewpoint being that gravity is like what we get taught at school about temprature and Brownian motion and later themodynamics.

That is he views what others think of as fundemental as an aggregate or sum of smaller more interesting things like a drunken crowd moves from the individual walks. As such it raises an interesring problem.

In theory both could be done, in practice even the first can not without applying initial constraints such as gas ratios have to be rationals not reals. His ideas are the endpoint of a long tradition that looked at GR and interpreted the equations as thermodynamic equations. However, I think this discussion is far outside the scope of this blog. There are other places where this is extensively discussed, e. Horses do amazing things and they are able to do all sorts of things that humans want them to do.

They can do whatever is in their physical and mental structures but cannot do things outside of those parameters see: Clever Hans. One thing that humans like about horses is they run fast. Around 40mph at the upper end. That was fast in the day of Shanks Mare.

Modern, and early industrial societies were based on Horse Power and we still use Horse Power as a measurement. The Race Horse Industry is solely based on how fast a horse is over a variety of terrain and conditions.

Every country with a horse racing industry, has a version and local cultures have variations on distance, condition and terrain. Fast ancestors make fast progeny. In the USA, , race horses are born every year. Of that number, about 20 will make it to the extreme upper end of the racing system. Anything that can be measured is measured. From bone density to fast-slow twitch muscle composition. The heart has been part of the measurement system for a long time.

This recent measurement is the capacity of one ventricle in the heart and the thickness of the muscle wall. The supposition is that this is the main pumping chamber and during the race this is the core to getting oxygenated blood through the system as a higher rate, leading to less muscle fatigue fading. So, in theory, the horse who has the highest heart ventricle ratio will be in the 20 elite horses. There is less variation and more concentration of undesirable genetic conditions.

This is true for all DNA selected breeding programs from dogs, cats, horses, etc. Kings, Queens and Royalty have the same issues. This is for just one breed of horse in the USA. They breath deeper. Bigger breaths not faster ones. Nor do physicists deny they get burnt by hot water, or that containment vessles can fail in spectacular often very dangerous fashion. Heat is just a measure of how fast they are moving not the transportation of energy.

That is it is supposed to remain uniform across the universe whilst normall matter fundamentally aggregates into various clumps when left alone and gives us the stars, planets and other celestial bodies.

How does this idea leads to dark matter and dark energy? That seems to be more involved. But Johannes Koelman wrote up a very short derivation of:. When the system becomes more complex, it becomes harder to understand, and therefore harder to verify correctness. So man invented many ways to make sure a horse had good legs and good hooves. Starting with woven plants, rawhide, and wood then moving to iron, steel, aluminum, composite, synthetic, nail on, glue on and clamp on. White legs balzane generally mean white hooves pied blanc.

White hooves are softer and less durable than dark or black hooves. From which these arise these proverbs…. Do you know of any evidence that tells us there is no non-luminous matter in these galaxies? By every possible standard, the stars in the galaxies and the galaxies themselves behave as if there is a lot of particulate invisible matter floating around the galaxies.

Until there is proof that there is no such matter, or a better explanation can be found, an empirical scientist has to conclude that there is indeed invisible matter present. I have not made a claim about the existence or non-existence of Dark Matter.

I admit that I do not like the model, but I have not claimed that Dark Matter does not exist. Two different arguments. I am looking at it from a theoretical angle, and questioning whether the models are correct or not.

That is all. Basically, I am saying, be careful getting locked-in to a model, because it may actually have bugs in the corner cases which we know is the case with GR and Black Holes. Do not bolt-on things to a already flawed model. KISS as much as possible. The available evidence does point to dark matter. It is not as if all these astronomers are idiots who would never ever consider alternative hypotheses.

They did e. But all alternative explanations fall far short of just plain old dark matter. The only reason to doubt that these dark matter particles exist are: 1 We cannot find particles that fit the requirements 2 There is a correlation between the total dark matter mass in a galaxy and the amount of regular matter.

It is as if you find dead bodies with bullet holes through their vital organs, but you cannot find any bullets. What evidence would you need before you consider the hypothesis that they were not killed by bullets? I am sorry to say that it seems your approach is bound to fail in every case as all models are known to be wrong. I need no evidence before considering the hypothesis.

In fact, I would immediately suspect it because it is a known method. So far, physicists are working on it. Basically there is something between five and ten new papers a week on the subject, most are not coherent with each other and sometimes re-boil that which has already been discounted or even within limits disproved.

I guess one way to put it is we are like small children who know there is something better, but do not have any real idea what it is so we just reach out and grab at whatever catches our eye. Excellent searching. Thank you for finding those awesome links that clearly demonstrate the issues.

We did not understand neutrinos. Nor positrons. So science should have stopped until a theory had been device that could predict them? Theories that were only developed decades later using work that simply assumed neutrinos existed.

Urilla was about to deliver their first child when she suddenly died from typhoid fever. He ran against his elder half-brother Newton for the office of constable and won by votes to Newton’s , but their father lost the election for Justice of the Peace in a very close four-way race.

Earp went through a downward spiral after Urilla’s death, and he had a series of legal problems. On March 14, , Barton County, Missouri , filed a lawsuit against him and his sureties. He was in charge of collecting license fees for Lamar which funded local schools, and he was accused of failing to turn them in. On March 31, James Cromwell filed a lawsuit against him alleging that he had falsified court documents concerning the amount of money that Earp had collected from Cromwell to satisfy a judgment.

On April 6, Deputy U. Marshal J. On May 15, an indictment was issued against Earp, Kennedy, and Shown.

John Shown’s wife Anna claimed that Earp and Kennedy got her husband drunk and then threatened his life to persuade him to help. On June 5, Kennedy was acquitted while the case remained against Earp and Shown. Earp did not wait for the trial but climbed out through the roof of his jail and headed for Peoria, Illinois. Earp was listed in the Peoria city directory during as a resident in the home of Jane Haspel at Washington Street near the corner of Hamilton, although Stuart N.

Lake took notes of a conversation with Earp years later in which Earp claimed that he’d been hunting buffalo during the winter of — Both Earps were arrested for the same crime again on May The city directory was published on March 1, , indicating that Wyatt was residing in the Haspel home and brothel, not merely patronizing it, at the time of his arrest.

On their sister Adelia’s eleventh birthday, June 16, , the two men visited her in the family home in Lamar, Missouri. The Peoria Daily National Democrat reported that Earp had been arrested once more on September 10, , and this time he was on a floating brothel named the Beardstown Gunboat owned by John T. Some of the women are said to be good looking, but all appear to be terribly depraved. By calling Earp the “Peoria Bummer,” the newspaper was putting him in a class of “contemptible loafers who impose on hard-working citizens,” [39] a “beggar” [3] and worse than tramps.

They were men of poor character who were chronic lawbreakers, [40] and Peoria constables probably considered him to be a pimp. In early , Earp and Sally moved to the growing cow town of Wichita where his brother James ran a brothel.

Roberts believes that he was more likely an enforcer or a bouncer for the brothel. Wichita was a railroad terminal and a destination for cattle drives from Texas. The town would fill with drunken, armed cowboys celebrating the end of their long journey when the cattle drives arrived, and lawmen were kept busy.

When the cattle drives ended and the cowboys left, Earp searched for something else to do. The Wichita City Eagle reported on October 29, , that he had helped an off-duty police officer find thieves who had stolen a man’s wagon. He also dealt faro at the Long Branch Saloon. On last Wednesday December 8 , policeman Earp found a stranger lying near the bridge in a drunken stupor.

He was taken next morning, before his honor, the police judge, paid his fine for his fun like a little man and went on his way rejoicing. The integrity of our police force has never been seriously questioned. Earp’s stint as Wichita deputy came to a sudden end on April 2, , when former marshal Bill Smith accused him of using his office to help hire his brothers as lawmen. At some point he met prostitute Mattie Blaylock , who became his common-law wife until Instead of gambling, Wyatt made a deal to buy all the wood that a local individual had cut and put his horses to work that winter hauling firewood into camp.

Earp to such an extent as to provide a slap from the ex-officer,” according to the account. Earp was given a temporary commission as deputy U. Marshal and left Dodge City, following Rudabaugh over miles km through Fort Clark, Texas , where the newspaper reported his presence on January 22, , and on to Fort Griffin , Texas. He arrived at the frontier town on the Clear Fork of the Brazos River and went to the Bee Hive Saloon, the largest in town and owned by John Shanssey , whom Earp had known since he was Shanssey told Earp that Rudabaugh had passed through town earlier in the week, but didn’t know where he was headed.

Shanssey suggested that Earp ask gambler Doc Holliday , who played cards with Rudabaugh. By May 11, , the Dodge newspapers reported that Earp had returned.

Ed Morrison and another two dozen cowboys rode into Dodge in that time and shot up the town, galloping down Front Street. They entered the Long Branch Saloon, vandalized and harassed the customers.

Hearing the commotion, Earp burst through the front door to find numerous guns pointing at him; another version of the story has it that only cowboys were there. In both versions, Holliday was playing cards in the back and he put his pistol at Morrison’s head, forcing him and his men to disarm. Fortunately, no one was injured. Assistant Marshal Earp and policeman Bat Masterson responded, along with several citizens, and opened fire with their pistols at the fleeing horsemen.

The riders crossed the Arkansas River bridge south of town but Hoyt fell from his horse, wounded in the arm or leg. Earp later told biographer Stuart Lake that he saw Hoyt through his gun sights, illuminated against the morning horizon, and he fired a fatal shot which killed him that day; [54] but the Dodge City Times reported that Hoyt developed gangrene and died on August 21 after his leg was amputated.

Dodge City had been a frontier cowtown for several years, but by it had begun to settle down. Virgil Earp was the town constable in Prescott , Arizona Territory, and he wrote to Wyatt about the opportunities in the silver-mining boomtown of Tombstone. He later wrote, “In , Dodge was beginning to lose much of the snap which had given it a charm to men of reckless blood, and I decided to move to Tombstone, which was just building up a reputation.

Virgil was appointed deputy U. Marshal for the Arizona Territory Crawley P. Virgil was to operate out of Tombstone, some miles km from Prescott, and his territory included the entire southeast area of the Arizona Territory. Tombstone had been founded on March 5, with about people living in tents and a few shacks.

Tombstone had already grown to about 1, residents. He later said that he made most of his money in Tombstone as a professional gambler. Jim worked as a barkeep, but none of their other business interests proved fruitful. Dodge as a shotgun messenger on stagecoaches when they transported Wells Fargo strongboxes. Hurst asked Deputy U. Virgil requested the assistance of his brothers Wyatt and Morgan, along with Wells Fargo agent Marshall Williams, and they found the mules at the McLaurys’ ranch.

McLaury was a Cowboy, a term which was generally used in that region to refer to a loose association of outlaws, some of whom also were land-owners and ranchers.

Legitimate cowmen were referred to as cattle herders or ranchers. They found a branding iron which the Cowboys had used to change the “U. Cowboy Frank Patterson made an agreement with Captain Hurst, and Hurst persuaded the posse to withdraw with the understanding that the mules would be returned. The Cowboys showed up two days later without the mules and laughed at Hurst and the Earps.

In response, Hurst printed a handbill describing the theft, and he charged McLaury with hiding the mules. He also reproduced the handbill in The Tombstone Epitaph on July 30, McLaury angrily printed a response in the Cowboy-friendly Nuggett , calling Hurst “unmanly”, “a coward, a vagabond, a rascal, and a malicious liar”, and accusing him of stealing the mules himself. Hurst later cautioned the Earp brothers that the Cowboys had threatened their lives.

County Sheriff Charles A. Shibell appointed Virgil Earp as deputy sheriff for the eastern part of Pima County, Arizona , on July 28, , which included Tombstone. Wyatt did his job well, and his name was mentioned nearly every week from August through November in The Tombstone Epitaph or the Nugget newspapers. On October 28, , Tombstone town marshal Fred White attempted to break up a group of five late-night, drunken revelers shooting at the moon on Allen Street. Morgan and Fred Dodge were in a cabin nearby.

Wyatt heard the shooting and ran to the scene. He borrowed a pistol from Fred Dodge and went to assist White. As he approached White, he saw White attempt to disarm Curly Bill Brocius and the gun discharged, striking White in the groin. He buffaloed Brocius, knocking him to the ground, then he grabbed Brocius by the collar and told him to get up. Brocius asked, “What have I done?

Wyatt’s coolness and nerve never showed to better advantage than they did that night. Curly Bill’s friends were pot-shooting at him in the dark. The shooting was lively and slugs were hitting the chimney and cabin…. Earp altered his story later on, telling John H. Flood Jr. Brocius waived a preliminary hearing so that his case could be transferred to Tucson District Court, and Virgil and Wyatt escorted him to Tucson to stand trial—possibly saving him from a lynching.

Brocius expressed regret, saying that he had not intended to shoot White. Gunsmith Jacob Gruber testified that Brocius’s single-action revolver was defective, allowing it to be discharged at half-cock. The judge ruled that the shooting was accidental and released Brocius. Brocius, however, remained intensely angry about how Earp had pistol-whipped him, and he became an enemy to the Earps. On November 2, , the Democratic incumbent Charles Shibell ran for re-election as county sheriff against Republican challenger Robert H.

Initially, Shibell was declared the winner by a margin of 58 votes [76] under suspicious circumstances. The precinct only contained about 10 eligible voters [80] another source says 50 , [81] but the Cowboys gathered non-voters such as the children and Chinese and had them cast ballots.

They then gave names to all the dogs, donkeys, and poultry and cast ballots in their names for Shibell. French ruled in Paul’s favor, but Shibell appealed. A recount found that Paul had votes and Shibell had This turned out to be the same James K. Johnson who had been shooting up Allen Street the night when Marshal White was killed.

Moreover, he had testified at Curly Bill’s preliminary hearing after he shot Fred White. None of the witnesses during the election hearing reported on ballots being cast by dogs. Paul was declared the winner of the Pima County sheriff election.

However, the election was a moot point by then, as Paul could not replace Behan with Earp because Cochise County was created out of the eastern portion of Pima County on January 1, Earp served as deputy sheriff for eastern Pima County for only three months. Earp was a Republican and believed that he would continue in the job. Southern Pacific was the major landholder, so tax collection was a relatively easy process.

Earp resigned from the sheriff’s office on November 9, , and Shibell immediately appointed Johnny Behan as the new deputy sheriff for eastern Pima County. However, Behan had greater political experience and influence in Prescott. Earp later testified at the O. Corral hearing that he and Behan had made a deal. Behan received the appointment in February , but he did not keep his end of the bargain and instead chose Harry Woods as undersheriff, who was a prominent Democrat.

Behan testified at first that he had not made any deal with Earp, although he later admitted that he had lied. He said that he broke his promise to Earp because of an incident which occurred shortly before his appointment [88] when Earp learned that Ike and Billy Clanton had one of his prize horses which had been stolen more than a year before. Earp and Holliday rode to the Clanton ranch near Charleston to recover the horse and overtook Behan along the way, who was riding in a wagon.

Behan also was heading to the ranch to serve an electioneering subpoena on Ike Clanton. According to Behan’s testimony, however, Earp had told the Clantons that Behan was on his way to arrest them for horse theft. The incident embarrassed the Clantons and Behan, and Behan later testified that he did not want to work with Earp and chose Woods instead. Later in life, Josephine Sarah Marcus aggressively protected hers and Wyatt’s history while in Tombstone.

Marcus was deliberately vague about this period, causing modern researchers to question what she was hiding. Researchers have identified two women with similar names in the same region of the Arizona Territory whose lives bear many striking parallels. Sadie Mansfield and Sadie Marcus both made a stagecoach journey from San Francisco to Prescott, Arizona Territory; both traveled with a black woman named Julia; both were sexual partners with Behan; both were 19 years old, born in New York City, and had parents from Prussia.

Behan owned a saloon in Tip Top, Arizona , where he maintained a prostitute named Sadie Mansfield, and he moved to Tombstone in September In early , Sadie found Behan in bed with the wife of a friend [45] and kicked him out, [92] although she still used the Behan surname through mid year.

Wyatt was in a relationship with Mattie Blaylock, a former prostitute. Earp named a mining claim he filed on February 16, “Mattie Blaylock. She suffered from severe headaches and became addicted to laudanum , a commonly used opiate and painkiller, and later committed suicide. When Marcus learned that Stuart Lake had discovered the existence of Blaylock, she successfully demanded that he omit her from his book I Married Wyatt Earp. After Marcus arrived in Tombstone with Behan, Earp apparently developed an interest in her, although there are no records in Tombstone of a relationship between them.

Tombstone diarist George W. Parsons never mentioned seeing Wyatt and Sadie together and neither did John Clum in his memoirs. In April , shortly after he left Tombstone, there is evidence that Earp had developed feelings for Marcus. The Earp posse, by that time on their vendetta ride, arrived in Albuquerque, New Mexico, intending to stay for two weeks.

Jaffa, who was also president of the local board of trade. Like Marcus, Jaffa was Jewish. Earp did mezuzah when entering the house. Holliday going with Tipton. Earp’s anger at Holliday’s ethnic slur may indicate that his feelings for Marcus were more serious at the time than is commonly known.

The information in the letter is compelling because at that time in the s, the possibility of a prior relationship between Wyatt Earp and Josephine Marcus while in Tombstone was unknown. Otero could know these things only if he had a relationship with someone who had personal knowledge of the people involved.

Marcus went to great lengths to sanitize her own and Wyatt’s history. For example, as mentioned, she worked hard to keep her name and the name of Wyatt’s second wife Mattie out of Stuart Lake ‘s book, Wyatt Earp: Frontier Marshal , and Marcus threatened litigation to keep it that way. Losing the undersheriff position left Earp without a job in Tombstone; however, he and his brothers were beginning to make some money on their mining claims in the Tombstone area.

In January , Oriental Saloon owner Milt Joyce gave Earp a percent interest in the faro concession at the Oriental Saloon in exchange for his services as a manager and enforcer. Schneider was well liked, and a mob of miners quickly gathered and threatened to lynch O’Rourke on the spot. Tensions increased between the Earps and both the Clantons and McLaurys through Jackson, a stagecoach typically carried an Express Box containing bullion weighing only to pounds 45 to 68 kg.

The holdup took place near Benson, during which the robbers killed driver Eli “Budd” Philpot and passenger Peter Roerig. They arrested King, and Sheriff Johnny Behan escorted him to jail, but somehow King walked in the front door and out the back door. During the hearing into the gunfight at the O. He testified that he had other motives for his plan; he hoped that arresting the murderers would boost his chances for election as Cochise County sheriff.

He told the court that he had taken the extra step of obtaining a second copy of a telegram for Clanton from Wells Fargo, ensuring that the reward applied for capturing the killers dead or alive. All three suspects were killed when attempting other robberies. In his testimony at the court hearing, Clanton said that Earp did not want to capture the men but to kill them.

Clanton told the court, “I was not going to have anything to do with helping to capture—” and then he corrected himself “—kill Bill Leonard, Crane, and Harry Head”. Clanton denied having any knowledge of the Wells Fargo telegram confirming the reward money.

The masked robbers robbed the passengers and the strongbox, but they were recognized by their voices and language. Stilwell was fired a short while later as a deputy sheriff for Sheriff Behan for county tax “accounting irregularities”. Wyatt and Virgil Earp rode with the sheriff’s posse to track the stage robbers, and Wyatt discovered an unusual boot heel print in the mud. The posse checked with a shoemaker in Bisbee and found a matching heel that he had just removed from Stilwell’s boot.

A further check of a Bisbee corral turned up both Spence and Stilwell, who were arrested by sheriff’s deputies Billy Breakenridge and Nagel. Corral shootout, and this final incident may have been misunderstood by the McLaurys. The tension came to a head between the Earps and the Cowboys on Wednesday, October 26, Ike Clanton, Billy Claiborne, and other Cowboys had been threatening to kill the Earps for several weeks, and Tombstone city Marshal Virgil Earp learned that they were armed and had gathered near the O.

Wyatt had been deputized by Virgil a few days prior as a temporary assistant marshal and Morgan was a deputy city marshal. Around 3 pm, the Earps and Holliday headed towards Fremont Street, where the Cowboys had been gathering. Corral’s rear entrance on Fremont Street. The lot was narrow between the Harwood House and Fly’s Boarding House and Photography Studio; the two parties were initially only about 6 to 10 feet 1. Morgan was clipped by a shot across his back that nicked both shoulder blades and a vertebra.

Virgil was shot through the calf, and Holliday was grazed by a bullet. Ike Clanton filed murder charges against the Earps and Holliday on October Justice Wells Spicer convened a preliminary hearing on October 31 to determine whether enough evidence existed to go to trial.

In an unusual proceeding, he took written and oral testimony from about 30 witnesses over more than a month. The Earps hired experienced trial lawyer Thomas Fitch as defense counsel. Since Virgil was confined to bed due to his wounds, Wyatt testified in a written statement that he drew his gun only after Clanton and McLaury went for their pistols.

He detailed the Earps’ previous troubles with the Clantons and McLaurys and explained that they had intended to disarm the Cowboys, and that his party had fired in self defense. Justice Spicer ruled on November 30 that there was not enough evidence to indict the men. He said that the evidence indicated that the Earps and Holliday acted within the law and that Virgil had deputized Holliday and Wyatt.

The Cowboys in Tombstone looked upon the Earps as robbers and murderers and plotted revenge. Virgil was ambushed on December 28 while walking between saloons on Allen Street in Tombstone, and he was maimed by a shotgun blast which struck his left arm and shoulder.

Ike Clanton’s hat was found in the back of the building across Allen Street from where the shots were fired. Wyatt wired U. Marshal Crawley P. Dake asking to be appointed deputy U. The Earps also raised some funds from sympathetic business owners in town. Wyatt and Virgil submitted their resignations to Dake on February 2, , being tired of the criticism leveled against them, but he refused to accept them because their accounts had not been settled.

Clanton was also acquitted that day of the charges against him in the shooting of Virgil, when the defense brought in seven witnesses who testified that Clanton was in Charleston at the time of the shooting. On February 13, Wyatt mortgaged his home to lawyer James G. Morgan Earp was murdered on March 18 while playing billiards, shot by gunmen firing from a dark alley through a door window into the billiard room. He was struck in the right side; the bullet shattered his spine, passed through his left side, and lodged in the thigh of George A.

Berry, while another round narrowly missed him. A doctor was summoned and Morgan was moved from the floor to a nearby couch, while the murderers escaped in the dark. He died 40 minutes later. The day after Morgan’s murder, Deputy U. The next morning, Frank Stilwell’s body was found alongside the tracks, riddled with buckshot and gunshot wounds.

The Earp posse briefly returned to Tombstone where Sheriff Behan tried to stop them, but was brushed aside. Spence was absent, but they found and killed Florentino “Indian Charlie” Cruz. The Earp party withdrew to find protection from the heavy gunfire, except for Wyatt and Texas Jack Vermillion, whose horse was shot. Curly Bill fired at Wyatt with a shotgun but missed.

Wyatt had protected Curly Bill against a mob ready to lynch him 18 months earlier, and he provided testimony that helped spare Curly Bill from a murder trial for killing Marshal Fred White. Wyatt returned Curly Bill’s gunfire with his own shotgun, hitting him in the chest from about 50 ft.

Vermillion tried to retrieve his rifle wedged in the scabbard under his fallen horse, exposing himself to the Cowboys’ gunfire, but Holliday helped him get to cover. Earp told biographer Stuart Lake that both sides of his long coat were shot through, and another bullet struck his boot heel.

In the letter, he relayed Earp’s story about how his overcoat was hit on both sides of his body by a charge of buckshot and that his saddle horn was shot off. Earp was finally able to get on his horse and retreat with the rest of the posse. Some modern researchers have found that most saddlehorns by this time were made of steel, not wood. He was never wounded in any of his confrontations, which added to his mystique. The posse left the Cowboys behind and rode north to the Percy Ranch, but they weren’t welcomed by Hugh and Jim Percy, who feared the Cowboys; they left around 3 AM on March 27 after a meal and some rest.

That same day, the posse arrived at the Sierra Bonita Ranch owned by Henry Hooker , a wealthy and prominent rancher. Gage for the posse. Hooker was known for his purebred stallions and ran more than brood mares which produced horses that were renowned for their speed, beauty, and temperament.

Behan’s posse was then observed in the distance, and Hooker suggested that Earp make his stand there, but Earp moved into the hills about 3 mi 5 km distant near Reilly Hill. In , Earp gave an interview to California historian Hubert Howe Bancroft , during which he claimed to have killed “over a dozen stage robbers, murderers, and cattle thieves” in his time as a lawman. The gunfight in Tombstone lasted only 30 seconds, but it ended up defining Earp for the rest of his life. Marshal Bat Masterson.

Masterson went with them to Trinidad, Colorado where he opened a faro game in a saloon and later became marshal. The Earps and Texas Jack set up camp on the outskirts of Gunnison, where they remained quietly at first, rarely going into town for supplies.

Josephine Marcus described the skeletal Holliday as having a continuous cough and standing on “unsteady legs”. Earp developed a reputation as a sportsman and gambler. He was reputed to own a six-horse stable in San Francisco, although it was learned later that the horses were leased. However, he still owned a house in Tombstone with his former common-law wife Mattie, who had waited for him in Colton where his parents and Virgil were living.

She had met a gambler from Arizona and he had asked her to marry him. Earp did not believe in divorce and therefore refused, but she ran away with the gambler anyway.

She struggled with addictions and committed suicide by opium poisoning on July 3, at age Earp’s friend Luke Short was part owner of the Long Branch saloon in Dodge City, but the mayor tried to run him out of business and out of town during the Dodge City War. Short appealed to Masterson, and Masterson contacted Earp on May 31, Governor George W.

Glick arranged a day cooling-off period to allow Short to sell the saloon, but Short, Earp, and the others refused to compromise. Seeking to avoid a confrontation with the deputized gunmen, and under pressure from Governor Glick and the Santa Fe Railroad, which conducted a lot of business in Dodge, the mayor and city council backed down. They allowed the gambling halls, dance halls, and saloons to reopen, including the Long Branch, and the so-called Dodge City War ended without a shot being fired.

Eagle City was another new boomtown growing from the discovery of gold, silver, and lead in the Coeur d’Alene area; it is now a ghost town in Shoshone County, Idaho.

Earp was named deputy sheriff in the area, including newly incorporated Kootenai County, Idaho , which was disputing jurisdiction of Eagle City with Shoshone County. There were a considerable number of disagreements over mining claims and property rights which Earp had a part in. On March 28, a miner named Bill Buzzard was constructing a building when Earp’s partner Jack Enright tried to stop him. Enright claimed that the building was on part of his property, and the two men began to argue.

Buzzard fired several shots at Enright with his Winchester, then allies of both sides took defensive positions behind snowbanks and began shooting at one another. Earp and his brother James stepped into the middle of the fray and helped peacefully resolve the dispute before anyone was seriously hurt. Around April , Earp reportedly used his badge to join a band of claim jumpers in Embry Camp, later renamed Chewelah, Washington.

Within six months, their substantial stake had run dry, and the Earps left the Murray-Eagle district. About 10 years later, a reporter hunted up Buzzard after the Fitzimmons-Sharkey fight and extracted a story from him which accused Earp of being the brains behind lot-jumping and a real-estate fraud, further tarnishing his reputation. The Coeur d’Alene mining venture died out by , so Earp and Josephine went to San Diego, California where the railroad was about to arrive and a real estate boom was underway.

They stayed for about four years, living most of the time in the Brooklyn Hotel. Each room was painted a different color, such as emerald green, summer yellow, or ruby red, [] and each prostitute was required to dress in matching garments.

Earp had a long-standing interest in boxing and horse racing, and he refereed boxing matches in San Diego, Tijuana, and San Bernardino. He won a race horse named Otto Rex in a card game and began investing in race horses, [] and he also judged prize fights on both sides of the border; [] he was one of the judges at the county fair horse races held in Escondido, California , in The Earps moved back to San Francisco in [27] so that Josephine could be closer to her half-sister Henrietta’s family, and Earp developed a reputation as a sportsman and a gambler.

He continued to race horses, but he could no longer afford to own them by , so he raced them on behalf of the owner of a horse stable in Santa Rosa which he managed.

Josephine wrote in her memoir that she and Earp were married in by the captain of multimillionaire Lucky Baldwin ‘s yacht off the California coast. Raymond Nez wrote that his grandparents witnessed their marriage, [] but no public record has been found for the marriage.

Earp’s relationship with Josephine was tempestuous at times. She gambled to excess and he had adulterous affairs. In the s, Earp gave Josephine signed legal papers and filing fees to a claim for an oil lease in Kern County, California.

She gambled away the filing fees and lied to him about what happened to the lease, which later turned out to be valuable. He distrusted her ability to manage her finances and made an arrangement with her sister Henrietta Lenhardt. He put oil leases in Henrietta’s name with the agreement that the proceeds would benefit Josephine after his death.

In February , the oil well was completed and producing barrels a day, but Henrietta’s three children refused to keep the agreement after their mother’s death and kept the royalties to themselves. Josephine later developed a reputation as a shrew who made life difficult for Earp. He was furious about her gambling habit, during which she lost considerable sums of money; each may have engaged in extramarital affairs. Earp was a last-minute choice as referee for a boxing match on December 2, , which the promoters billed as the heavyweight championship of the world, when Bob Fitzsimmons was set to fight Tom Sharkey at the Mechanics’ Pavilion in San Francisco.

Earp had refereed 30 or so matches in earlier days, though not under the Marquess of Queensberry Rules but under the older and more liberal London Prize Ring Rules. Fitzsimmons was favored to win, and the public and even civic officials placed bets on the outcome.

Fitzsimmons dominated Sharkey throughout the fight, and he hit Sharkey with his famed “solar plexus punch” in the eighth round, an uppercut under the heart that could render a man temporarily helpless. Then, at Fitzsimmons’ next punch, Sharkey dropped, clutched his groin, and rolled on the canvas screaming foul. Earp awarded the fight to Sharkey, whom attendants carried out as “limp as a rag”.

Fitzsimmons went to court to overturn Earp’s decision, [] and newspaper accounts and testimony over the next two weeks revealed a conspiracy among the boxing promoters to fix the fight’s outcome. Lewis, who accused the Earp brothers of being “stage robbers”, [] and Earp was parodied in editorial caricatures by newspapers across the country. On December 17, Judge Sanderson finally ruled that prize fighting was illegal in San Francisco and the courts would not determine who the winner was.

Sharkey retained the purse, but the decision provided no vindication for Earp. The boxing match left a smear on his public character which followed him until he died and afterward. Brookes Lee was accused of treating Sharkey to make it appear that he had been fouled by Fitzsimmons, and Lee admitted that it was true.

While in Yuma, Wyatt heard of the gold rush in the Alaska Yukon. Earp was reported to have secured the backing of a syndicate of sporting men to open a gambling house there. Sadie got pregnant too, and she thought she could persuade Earp from heading to Alaska. He was in agreement, but Sadie, who was 37, miscarried soon after. Wyatt and Josephine spent only a month in Dawson. When they returned north, Wyatt was offered a job as the marshal in Wrangell, Alaska , but he served for only 10 days.

Sadie learned she was pregnant again, and they returned to San Francisco on October 11 aboard the steamship City of Seattle. By the time they reached Rampart on the Yukon River, freeze-up had set in. In , they got as far as Rampart before the Yukon River froze in place for the winter. Rampart was a friendly place, but far from the real action. They left with the spring thaw and headed for St. Wyatt managed a small store during the spring of , selling beer and cigars for the Alaska Commercial Company.

Michael as “chickenfeed” and persuaded him to relocate to Nome. At the time of the Earps’ arrival, Nome was two blocks wide and five miles long. The best accommodations Wyatt and Sadie could find was a wooden shack a few minutes from the main street, only slightly better than a tent. The river was an open sewer. Typhoid , dysentery and pneumonia were common. Hoxie built the Dexter Saloon in Nome, the city’s first two-story wooden building and its largest and most luxurious saloon.

It was used for a variety of purposes because it was so large: 70 by 30 feet The Dexter drew anyone famous who visited Nome. Wyatt rubbed elbows with future novelist Rex Beach, writer Jack London , playwright Wilson Mizner , and boxing promoter Tex Rickard , [45] with whom Earp developed a long-lasting relationship.

Both the Dexter and the Northern Saloon competed for business with more than 60 other saloons in town serving an estimated 20, residents. He was arrested twice in Nome for minor offenses, including being drunk and disorderly, although he was not tried. In November , Earp left Alaska on the feet 79 m iron steamer Cleveland. The ship was infested with lice and was struck by a storm on the Bering Sea, making for a difficult trip.

It took nine days to reach Seattle, Washington. Wyatt learned about his death soon after, and although some modern researchers believe he went to Arizona to avenge his brother’s death, the distance and time required to make the trip made it unlikely, and no contemporary evidence has been found to support that theory. In , archivists at the Alaska State Library digitized a collection of documents relating to Earp’s arrival and stay in Alaska.

Earp arrived in Seattle with a plan to open a saloon and gambling room. On November 25, , the Seattle Star described him as “a man of great reputation among the toughs and criminals, inasmuch as he formerly walked the streets of a rough frontier mining town with big pistols stuck in his belt, spurs on his boots, and a devil-may-care expression upon his official face”. The Seattle Daily Times was less full of praise, announcing in a very small article that he had a reputation in Arizona as a “bad man”, which in that era was synonymous with “villain” and “desperado”.

He faced considerable opposition to his plan from John Considine , who controlled all three gaming operations in town. Although gambling was illegal, Considine had worked out an agreement with Police Chief C. Earp partnered with an established local gambler named Thomas Urguhart, and they opened the Union Club saloon and gambling operation in Seattle’s Pioneer Square.

The Seattle Star noted two weeks later that Earp’s saloon was earning a large following. Considine unsuccessfully tried to intimidate Earp, but his saloon continued to prosper. After the city failed to act, on March 23, , the Washington state attorney general filed charges against several gamblers, including Earp and his partner. The club’s furnishings were confiscated and burned. Newspapers in Seattle and San Francisco falsely reported on Wyatt’s wealth which prompted a stampede to Nome to seek similar riches.

Nome was advertised as an “exotic summer destination” and four ships a day left Seattle with passengers infected with “gold fever”. Within weeks Nome had grown to a city of over 20, inhabitants.

In , the major business there “was not mining, but gambling and saloon trade. There were saloons and gambling houses, with an occasional restaurant. Prize fighting became the sport of choice and Wyatt’s income soared with side bets. He often refereed bouts himself at The Dexter.

In November , at age 40, Sadie got pregnant again, and she and Wyatt decided to leave Alaska. They sold their interest in the Dexter to their partner, Charlie Hoxie. Sadie miscarried and lost the baby. Three months later, in February , they arrived in Tonopah, Nevada , known as the “Queen of the Silver Camps”, where silver and gold had been discovered in and a boom was under way.

After Tonopah’s gold strike waned, they moved in to Goldfield, Nevada , where his brother Virgil and his wife were living. He hired Wyatt as a pit boss. In , he discovered several deposits of gold and copper near the Sonoran Desert town of Vidal, California , on the Colorado River and filed more than mining claims [92] near the Whipple Mountains.

This led to Wyatt’s final armed confrontation. Lewis to head up a posse to protect surveyors of the American Trona Company who were attempting to wrest control of mining claims for vast deposits of potash on the edge of Searles Lake held in receivership by the foreclosed California Trona Company.

Wyatt and the group he guarded were regarded as claim jumpers and were confronted by armed representatives of the other company. King wrote, “it was the nerviest thing he had ever seen”. With guns pulled, Wyatt came out of his tent with a Winchester rifle , firing a round at the feet of Federal Receiver Stafford W.

Earp’s actions did not resolve the dispute, which eventually escalated into the “Potash Wars” of the Mojave Desert. Peterson, a realty broker, in a fake faro game. The Earps bought a small cottage in Vidal, the only home they ever owned. Beginning in and until Wyatt’s health began to fail in , Wyatt and Sadie Earp summered in Los Angeles and spent the rest of the year in the desert working their claims. In about , Charles Welsh, a retired railroad engineer and friend that Earp had known since Dodge City, frequently invited the Earps to visit his family in San Bernardino.

When the Welsh family moved to Los Angeles, the Earps accepted an invitation to stay with them for a while in their top-floor apartment until the Earps found a place to rent. She and her sister Alma were concerned about the care Sadie gave Wyatt. Some of the heaviest rain in decades swamped South Korea’s capital region, turning streets into car-clogged rivers and sending floods cascading into subway stations. As waters warm and storms become more intense, some of Fiji’s fisherwomen are making about half as much money as they used to — for more time spent working out at sea.

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Reselling new cars suddenly comes with “absolutely insane” profit Some carmakers are beginning to crackdown on the practice. Aug 8. Eli Lilly pushes back against Indiana’s new abortion law Some large employers say sweeping restrictions on the procedure will make it harder to recruit employees in the state. Don’t make these k mistakes as stocks slide One in 7 investors is making a major error in managing their retirement plan, research shows.

Italy says “arrivederci” to Domino’s Pizza Restaurant chain hoped to export American-style slices to pizza’s culinary birthplace, but Italians weren’t buying it. Managing Your Money More. How much mortgage can you afford based on your salary, income and assets? Jul What is a Roth IRA, and how does it work? Your most frequently asked credit card questions, answered Despite their popularity, credit cards can be confusing.

Aug 2. Money Tech. Aug 5. Want to cool off in a swimming pool? There’s an app for that Swimply lets private pool owners rent them by the hour, while helping people beat the heat. Apple slows hiring as tech industry tightens belt, report says Other tech industry bellwethers are also trimming jobs as they brace for slower consumer spending.



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