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Gun politics is an area of American продолжить чтение defined by two primary opposing ideologies about civilian x control 227 lapierre 2018 free ownership. People who advocate for gun control support strengthening regulations related to gun ownership; x control 227 lapierre 2018 free who advocate for gun rights oppose new regulations or support loosening restrictions related to gun ownership.

These groups often disagree on the interpretation of laws and court cases related to firearms x control 227 lapierre 2018 free well as about the effects of firearms regulation on crime and public safety. Debates regarding firearm availability and gun violence in the United States have been characterized by concerns about the right to bear armssuch as found in the Second Amendment to x control 227 lapierre 2018 free U.

Constitutionand the responsibility of the United States government to serve the needs of its citizens and to prevent crime and deaths. Firearms regulation supporters say that indiscriminate or unrestricted gun rights inhibit the government from fulfilling that responsibility, and causes a safety concern. Gun legislation по этой ссылке the United States is augmented by judicial interpretations of the Constitution.

The Second Amendment to the U. Constitution reads: “A well regulated X control 227 lapierre 2018 free, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed. The effect of those two amendments on gun politics was the subject of landmark U. Supreme Court decisions in District of Columbia v. Hellerwhere the Court affirmed x control 227 lapierre 2018 free the first time that the Second Amendment guarantees an individual right to possess firearms independent of service in a state militia and to x control 227 lapierre 2018 free them for traditionally lawful purposes such as self-defense within the home, and in McDonald v.

City of Chicagowhere the Court ruled that the Second Amendment is incorporated by the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment and thereby applies to both state and federal law. In so doing, it endorsed the “individual-right” theory of the Second Amendment’s meaning and rejected a rival interpretation, the “collective-right” theory, according to which the amendment protects a collective right of states to maintain militias or an individual right to keep and bear arms in connection with service in a militia.

The American hunting tradition comes from a time when the United States was an agrarian, subsistence nation where hunting was a profession for some, an auxiliary приведенная ссылка of food for some settlers, and also a deterrence to animal predators. A connection between shooting skills and survival among rural American men was in many cases a necessity and a ‘ rite of passage ‘ for those entering смотрите подробнее. Prior to the American Revolutionthere was neither budget nor manpower nor government desire to maintain a full-time army.

Therefore, the armed citizen-soldier carried responsibility. Service in militia, including providing one’s own ammunition and weapons, was mandatory for all men. Yet, as early as the s, the mandatory universal militia duty evolved gradually to voluntary militia units and a reliance on a regular army.

Throughout the 19th century the institution of the organized civilian militia began to decline. Closely related to the militia tradition is the frontier tradition, with the need for self-protection pursuant to westward expansion and the extension of the American frontier. In the years prior to the American Revolutionthe British, in response to the colonists’ unhappiness over increasingly direct control and taxation of the colonies, imposed a gunpowder embargo on the colonies in an attempt to lessen the ability of the colonists to resist British encroachments into what the colonies regarded as local matters.

Two direct attempts to disarm the colonial militias fanned what had been a smoldering resentment of British interference into the fires of war. These two incidents were the attempt to confiscate the cannon of the Concord and Lexington militias, leading to the Battles of Lexington and Concord of April 19,and the attempt, on April 20, to confiscate militia powder stores in the armory of Williamsburg, Virginia, which led to the Gunpowder Incident and a face-off between Patrick Henry and hundreds of militia members on one side and the Royal Governor of Virginia, Lord Dunmore, and British seamen on the other.

The Gunpowder Incident was eventually settled by paying the colonists for the powder. According to historian Saul Cornellstates passed some of the first gun x control 227 lapierre 2018 free laws, beginning with Kentucky’s law to “curb the practice of carrying concealed weapons in The individual right interpretation of the Second Amendment first arose in Bliss v. Commonwealth[19] which evaluated the right to bear arms in defense of themselves and the state pursuant to Section 28 of the Second Constitution of Kentucky The right to bear arms in defense of themselves and the state was interpreted as an individual right, for the case of a concealed sword cane.

This case has been described as about “a statute prohibiting the carrying of concealed weapons [that] was violative of the Second Amendment”. The first основываясь на этих данных court decision relevant to the “right to bear arms” issue was Bliss v. The Kentucky court held that “the right of citizens to bear arms in defense of themselves and the State must be preserved entire, Also during the Jacksonian Era, the first collective right or group right interpretation of the Second Amendment arose.

In State v. Buzzardthe Arkansas high court adopted a militia-based, political right, reading of the right to bear arms under state law, and upheld the 21st section of the second article of the Arkansas Constitution that declared, “that the free white men of this State shall have a right to keep and x control 227 lapierre 2018 free arms for their common defense”, [23] while rejecting a challenge to a statute prohibiting the carrying of concealed weapons.

X control 227 lapierre 2018 free Arkansas high court declared “That the words ‘a well-regulated militia being necessary for the security of a free State’, and the words ‘common defense’ clearly show the true intent and meaning of these Constitutions x control 227 lapierre 2018 free.

The two early state court cases, Bliss and Buzzardset the fundamental dichotomy in interpreting the Second Amendment, i. In the years immediately following the Civil Warthe question of the rights of freed slaves to carry arms and to belong to the militia x control 227 lapierre 2018 free to the attention of the federal courts. In response to the problems freed slaves faced in the Southern states, the Fourteenth Amendment was drafted.

X control 227 lapierre 2018 free of Ohio used the Court’s own phrase “privileges and immunities of citizens” to x control 227 lapierre 2018 free the first Eight Amendments of the Bill of Rights under its protection and guard these rights against state legislation. The debate in Congress on the Fourteenth Amendment after the Civil War also concentrated on what the Southern States were doing to harm the newly freed slaves.

One particular concern was the disarming of former slaves. The Second Amendment attracted serious judicial attention with the Accuweather free for windows 10 понимаю era case of United States v. Cruikshank which ruled that the Privileges or Immunities Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment did not cause the Bill of Rights, including the Second Топик, price of hp windows 10 laptop free download Вам, to limit the powers of the State governments, stating that the Second Amendment “has no other effect than to restrict the powers of the national government.

Constitution, which would include the Second Amendment, “following John Randolph Tucker ‘s famous oral argument in the Chicago anarchist Haymarket Riot case, Spies v. Illinois “:. Though originally the first ten Amendments were adopted as limitations on Federal x control 227 lapierre 2018 free, yet in so far as they secure and recognize fundamental rights — common law rights — of the man, they make them privileges and immunities of the man as citizen of the United States Since the late 19th century, with three key cases from the pre-incorporation erathe U.

Supreme Court consistently ruled that the Second Amendment and the Bill of Rights restricted only Congress, and not the States, in the regulation of guns. It was passed after Prohibition -era gangsterism peaked with the Saint Valentine’s Day massacre of The era was famous for criminal use of firearms such as the Thompson submachine gun Tommy gun and sawed-off shotgun.

In United States v. Miller [30] the Court did not address incorporation, but whether a sawn-off shotgun “has some reasonable relationship to the preservation or efficiency источник a well-regulated militia.

On appeal the federal government did not object to Miller’s release since he had died by then, seeking only to have the trial judge’s ruling on the unconstitutionality of the federal law overturned. Under these circumstances, neither Miller nor his attorney appeared before the Court to argue the case.

The Court only heard argument from the federal prosecutor. In its ruling, the Court overturned the trial court and upheld the NFA. It also prohibits selling firearms to certain categories of individuals defined as “prohibited persons. It x control 227 lapierre 2018 free banned ownership of unregistered fully automatic rifles and civilian purchase or sale of any such firearm made from that date forward. The assassination attempt on President Ronald Reagan in led to enactment of the Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act Brady Law in which established the national background check system to prevent certain restricted individuals from owning, purchasing, or transporting firearms.

Burger wrote:. Americans also have a right to defend their homes, and we need not challenge that. Nor does anyone seriously question that the Constitution protects the right of hunters to own and keep sporting guns for hunting x control 227 lapierre 2018 free any more than anyone would challenge the right to own and keep fishing rods and other equipment for fishing — or to own automobiles.

To ‘keep and bear arms’ for hunting today is essentially a recreational activity and not an imperative of survival, as it was years ago. A Stockton, California, schoolyard shooting in led to passage of the Federal Assault Weapons Ban of AWB or AWBwhich defined and banned the manufacture and transfer of “semiautomatic assault weapons ” and “large capacity ammunition feeding devices.

According to journalist Chip Berletconcerns about gun control laws along with outrage over two high-profile incidents involving the ATF Ruby Ridge in and the Waco siege in mobilized the militia movement of citizens who feared that the federal government would begin to confiscate firearms.

Though gun control is not strictly a partisan issue, there is generally more support for gun control legislation in the Democratic Party than in the Republican Party. Where the NRA has looked to find some common ground with gun reform advocates and at least appear to be reasonable, NAGR has been the unapologetic champion of opening up gun laws even more. According to the authors of The Changing Politics of Gun Controlin the late s, the NRA changed its activities to incorporate political advocacy.

In particular when gun owners respond to fears of gun confiscation with increased purchases and by helping to isolate the industry from the misuse of its products used in shooting incidents.

InCongress added language to the relevant appropriations bill which required “none of the funds made available for injury prevention and control at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention may be used to advocate or promote gun control. Rosenbergincluding research authored by Arthur Kellermann. In Octoberthe Centers for Disease Control and Prevention published a report on the effectiveness of gun violence prevention strategies that concluded “Evidence was insufficient to determine the effectiveness of any of these laws.

Efforts by gun control advocates to renew the ban failed, as did attempts to replace it after it became defunct. New groups have also arisen, such as the Students for Concealed Carrywhich grew largely out of safety-issues resulting from the creation x control 227 lapierre 2018 free gun-free zones that were legislatively mandated amidst a response to widely publicized school shootings.

Inin United States v. Emersonthe Fifth Circuit became the first federal appeals x control 227 lapierre 2018 free to recognize an individual’s right to own guns. Inin Parker v. District of Columbiathe D. Circuit became the first federal appeals court to strike down a gun control law on Second Amendment grounds.

Smart guns only fire when in the hands of the owner, a feature gun control advocates say eliminates accidental firings by children, and the risk of hostile persons such as prisoners, criminal suspects, an opponent in a fight, or an enemy soldier grabbing the gun and using it against the owner. Gun rights advocates fear mandatory x control 227 lapierre 2018 free gun technology will make it more difficult to fire a gun when needed. The New Jersey Childproof Handgun Law of requires that 30 months after “personalized handguns are available” anywhere in the United States, only smart guns x control 227 lapierre 2018 free be sold in the state.

Ina Maryland gun dealer dropped plans to sell the first smart gun in the United States after receiving complaints. In Junein District of Columbia v. Hellerthe Supreme Court upheld by a 5—4 vote the Parker decision striking down the D. Heller ruled that Beer catcher game for pc have an individual right to possess firearms, irrespective of membership in a militia, “for traditionally lawful purposes, such as self-defense within the home. The majority held that the Second Amendment’s preamble, “A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State,” is consistent with this interpretation when understood in light of the framers’ belief that the most effective way to destroy a приведенная ссылка militia was to читать больше the citizens.

The majority also found that United States v. Miller supported an individual-right rather than a collective-right view, contrary to the dominant 20th-century interpretation of that decision.

In Miller, the Supreme Court unanimously held that a federal law requiring the registration of sawed-off shotguns did not violate the Second Amendment because such weapons did not have a “reasonable x control 227 lapierre 2018 free to the preservation or efficiency of a well regulated militia. The four dissenting justices said that the majority had broken established precedent on the Second Amendment, [68] and took the position that the Amendment refers to an individual right, but in the context of militia service.

In Junea Chicago law that banned handguns was struck down. The 5—4 ruling incorporated the Second Amendment, stating that “The Fourteenth Amendment makes the Second Amendment right to keep and bear arms fully applicable to the States. One way advocacy groups influence politics is through “outside spending,” using political action committees PACs x control 227 lapierre 2018 free c x control 227 lapierre 2018 free organizations.

Another way advocacy groups influence politics is through lobbying ; some groups use lobbying firms, while others employ in-house lobbyists. In Augustan open source group called Defense Distributed launched a project to design and release a blueprint for a handgun that could be downloaded from the Internet and manufactured using a 3D printer. On January 16,in response to the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting жмите other mass shootings, President Barack Obama announced a plan for reducing gun violence in four parts: closing background check loopholes; banning assault weapons and large capacity magazines; making schools safer; and increasing access to mental health services.

 
 

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Psychology is the scientific study of mind and behavior. Psychology includes the study of conscious and unconscious phenomena, including feelings and thoughts.

It is an academic discipline of immense scope, crossing the boundaries between the natural and social sciences. Psychologists seek an understanding of the emergent properties of brains , linking the discipline to neuroscience.

As social scientists, psychologists aim to understand the behavior of individuals and groups. A professional practitioner or researcher involved in the discipline is called a psychologist. Some psychologists can also be classified as behavioral or cognitive scientists.

Some psychologists attempt to understand the role of mental functions in individual and social behavior. Others explore the physiological and neurobiological processes that underlie cognitive functions and behaviors.

Psychologists are involved in research on perception , cognition , attention , emotion , intelligence , subjective experiences , motivation , brain functioning , and personality. Psychologists’ interests extend to interpersonal relationships , psychological resilience , family resilience , and other areas within social psychology. They also consider the unconscious mind. Some, but not all, clinical and counseling psychologists rely on symbolic interpretation.

While psychological knowledge is often applied to the assessment and treatment of mental health problems, it is also directed towards understanding and solving problems in several spheres of human activity. By many accounts, psychology ultimately aims to benefit society. Other psychologists conduct scientific research on a wide range of topics related to mental processes and behavior.

Typically the latter group of psychologists work in academic settings e. Another group of psychologists is employed in industrial and organizational settings. The word psychology derives from the Greek word psyche , for spirit or soul.

The dictionary refers to “Anatomy, which treats the Body, and Psychology, which treats of the Soul. In , William James defined psychology as “the science of mental life, both of its phenomena and their conditions.

However, this meaning was contested, notably by radical behaviorists such as John B. Watson , who in asserted that the discipline is a “natural science,” the theoretical goal of which “is the prediction and control of behavior.

The ancient civilizations of Egypt, Greece, China, India, and Persia all engaged in the philosophical study of psychology. In Ancient Egypt the Ebers Papyrus mentioned depression and thought disorders. In China, psychological understanding grew from the philosophical works of Laozi and Confucius , and later from the doctrines of Buddhism. This body of knowledge involves insights drawn from introspection and observation, as well as techniques for focused thinking and acting.

It frames the universe in term of a division of physical reality and mental reality as well as the interaction between the physical and the mental. Chinese philosophy also emphasized purifying the mind in order to increase virtue and power. An ancient text known as The Yellow Emperor’s Classic of Internal Medicine identifies the brain as the nexus of wisdom and sensation, includes theories of personality based on yin—yang balance, and analyzes mental disorder in terms of physiological and social disequilibria.

Chinese scholarship that focused on the brain advanced during the Qing Dynasty with the work of Western-educated Fang Yizhi — , Liu Zhi — , and Wang Qingren — Wang Qingren emphasized the importance of the brain as the center of the nervous system, linked mental disorder with brain diseases, investigated the causes of dreams and insomnia , and advanced a theory of hemispheric lateralization in brain function.

Influenced by Hinduism , Indian philosophy explored distinctions in types of awareness. A central idea of the Upanishads and other Vedic texts that formed the foundations of Hinduism was the distinction between a person’s transient mundane self and their eternal, unchanging soul. Divergent Hindu doctrines and Buddhism have challenged this hierarchy of selves, but have all emphasized the importance of reaching higher awareness.

Yoga encompasses a range of techniques used in pursuit of this goal. Theosophy , a religion established by Russian-American philosopher Helena Blavatsky , drew inspiration from these doctrines during her time in British India. Psychology was of interest to Enlightenment thinkers in Europe. In Germany, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz — applied his principles of calculus to the mind, arguing that mental activity took place on an indivisible continuum.

He suggested that the difference between conscious and unconscious awareness is only a matter of degree. Christian Wolff identified psychology as its own science, writing Psychologia Empirica in and Psychologia Rationalis in Immanuel Kant advanced the idea of anthropology as a discipline, with psychology an important subdivision.

Kant, however, explicitly rejected the idea of an experimental psychology , writing that “the empirical doctrine of the soul can also never approach chemistry even as a systematic art of analysis or experimental doctrine, for in it the manifold of inner observation can be separated only by mere division in thought, and cannot then be held separate and recombined at will but still less does another thinking subject suffer himself to be experimented upon to suit our purpose , and even observation by itself already changes and displaces the state of the observed object.

However, this discipline did not yet embrace experimentation. Philosopher John Stuart Mill believed that the human mind was open to scientific investigation, even if the science is in some ways inexact. He articulated the principle that human perception of a stimulus varies logarithmically according to its intensity. Fechner’s Elements of Psychophysics challenged Kant’s negative view with regard to conducting quantitative research on the mind.

Wundt, in turn, came to Leipzig University, where he established the psychological laboratory that brought experimental psychology to the world. Wundt focused on breaking down mental processes into the most basic components, motivated in part by an analogy to recent advances in chemistry, and its successful investigation of the elements and structure of materials. The German psychologist Hermann Ebbinghaus , a researcher at the University of Berlin , was another 19th-century contributor to the field.

He pioneered the experimental study of memory and developed quantitative models of learning and forgetting. The approach of Gestalt psychology is based upon the idea that individuals experience things as unified wholes. Rather than reducing thoughts and behavior into smaller component elements, as in structuralism, the Gestaltists maintained that whole of experience is important, and differs from the sum of its parts.

Stanley Hall , an American who studied with Wundt, founded a psychology lab that became internationally influential. The lab was located at Johns Hopkins University. Hall, in turn, trained Yujiro Motora , who brought experimental psychology, emphasizing psychophysics, to the Imperial University of Tokyo.

Cattell, who also studied with eugenicist Francis Galton , went on to found the Psychological Corporation. Witmer focused on the mental testing of children; Scott, on employee selection.

Another student of Wundt, the Englishman Edward Titchener , created the psychology program at Cornell University and advanced ” structuralist ” psychology. The idea behind structuralism was to analyze and classify different aspects of the mind, primarily through the method of introspection. In , James wrote an influential book, The Principles of Psychology , which expanded on the structuralism. He memorably described ” stream of consciousness.

A different strain of experimentalism, with a greater connection to physiology, emerged in South America, under the leadership of Horacio G. The first meeting of the International Congress of Psychology sponsored by the International Union of Psychological Science took place in Paris, in August , amidst the World’s Fair celebrating the centennial of the French Revolution. William James was one of three Americans among the attendees.

The International Congress continued to be held at different locations in Europe and with wide international participation. New ideas about psychology diffused from Japan into China. American psychology gained status upon the U. In the s and s, eugenics became a standard topic in psychology classes.

University of Michigan psychologist Dorwin Cartwright reported that university researchers began large-scale propaganda research in — He observed that “the last few months of the war saw a social psychologist become chiefly responsible for determining the week-by-week-propaganda policy for the United States Government. The Army also engaged in large-scale psychological research of troop morale and mental health.

In Germany after World War I, psychology held institutional power through the military, which was subsequently expanded along with the rest of the military during Nazi Germany. Freudian psychoanalysts were expelled and persecuted under the anti-Jewish policies of the Nazi Party , and all psychologists had to distance themselves from Freud and Adler , founders of psychoanalysis who were also Jewish. As described by one physician, “Despite the importance of analysis, spiritual guidance and the active cooperation of the patient represent the best way to overcome individual mental problems and to subordinate them to the requirements of the Volk and the Gemeinschaft.

After the war, new institutions were created although some psychologists, because of their Nazi affiliation, were discredited. Alexander Mitscherlich founded a prominent applied psychoanalysis journal called Psyche.

With funding from the Rockefeller Foundation, Mitscherlich established the first clinical psychosomatic medicine division at Heidelberg University. In , psychology was integrated into the required studies of medical students. After the Russian Revolution , the Bolsheviks promoted psychology as a way to engineer the “New Man” of socialism.

Consequently, university psychology departments trained large numbers of students in psychology. At the completion of training, positions were made available for those students at schools, workplaces, cultural institutions, and in the military. The Russian state emphasized pedology and the study of child development. Lev Vygotsky became prominent in the field of child development.

Luria , and Aron Zalkind, were denounced; Ivan Pavlov posthumously and Stalin himself were celebrated as heroes of Soviet psychology. The topics of cybernetics, linguistics, and genetics became acceptable again. The new field of engineering psychology emerged. The field involved the study of the mental aspects of complex jobs such as pilot and cosmonaut. Interdisciplinary studies became popular and scholars such as Georgy Shchedrovitsky developed systems theory approaches to human behavior.

Twentieth-century Chinese psychology originally modeled itself on U. Chinese psychologists were encouraged to focus on education and language learning. Chinese psychologists were drawn to the idea that education would enable modernization. John Dewey, who lectured to Chinese audiences between and , had a significant influence on psychology in China. Chinese psychologists elaborated on Lenin’s model of a “reflective” consciousness, envisioning an “active consciousness” pinyin : tzu-chueh neng-tung-li able to transcend material conditions through hard work and ideological struggle.

They developed a concept of “recognition” pinyin : jen-shih which referred to the interface between individual perceptions and the socially accepted worldview; failure to correspond with party doctrine was “incorrect recognition. In , the academy created a Psychology Research Office, which in became the Institute of Psychology. Because most leading psychologists were educated in the United States, the first concern of the academy was the re-education of these psychologists in the Soviet doctrines.

Child psychology and pedagogy for the purpose of a nationally cohesive education remained a central goal of the discipline. Several associations including the Association of Black Psychologists and the Asian American Psychological Association have arisen to promote the inclusion of non-European racial groups in the profession.

 
 

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